Black Rice farming is becoming popular nowadays as there are many health benefits of black rice as well as the high cost that black rice fetch in the current market. Many startup farmers and other farmers are unaware of these Black Rice Farming and how to do and how to harvest Black Rice. In this post, we have come up with this article on how to start and cultuvate Black Rice farming.
Soil selection for Black Rice farming: Black Rice can be grown in wide variety of soils ranging from loam to sandy loam to clay loam, but clay loam soils with best water holding capacity are considered as the best for black rice.
Field preparation for Black Rice:
After summer ploughing, 2-3 ploughing are required to prepare the soil. Maintain bunding in the field to conserve and retain water. If Dhaincha is grown for green manuring as a previous crop, it should be incorporated in the soil with phosphorous. Watering is done in the field at least one week prior of transplanting to allow to grow weeds. Plough the field by filling water and do puddling before transplanting the black rice seedlings.
Black Rice varieties:
There are very few Black Rice varieties. They are
- Kalabatt, and
Black Rice seeds are available with few farmers.
Seed Rate for Black Rice Farming: Use 20-25kg of Black Rice seed per hectare of fine ,30-35kg seed for medium and 35- 40kg seed for coarse Black Rice seeds in nursery to transplant it in 1 ha or 2.45 ac land.
Black Rice Nursery Raising and Its Management: Prepare 80-100 plots of 1.25m x 8.0m (10sqm) with 4-inch height to raise nursery. Use 100kg N and 50kg P i.e 220gm urea and 312.50gm SSP per plot in the nursery. Nursery in 800-1000 sqm is enough for transplanting in 1-hectare land. Spray Trichoderma biopesticide within 10 days after sowing of the nursery. Use as protective measure 5kg zinc sulfate with 20kg urea or in 1000 liter filter water of 2.5 kg calcium carbonate per hectare. To control whitening use 4kg ferrous sulfate with 20kg urea per hectare. Use 500gm Carbendazim 50% WP per hectare to control Black Rice blast. Use 2kg zinc manganese carbamate per hectare to control brown spot disease.
Insect Pest management in Black Rice farming: To protect the crop from various insects pests spray 1lt Fenitrothion 50EC or 1.25lt Quinolphos 25EC or 1.5lt Chloropyriphos 20EC per hectare.
Seed Treatment for Black Rice seed:
Before sowing seed in nursery treat the seed with 4gm streptocyclin sulfate per 25kg seed or use 40gm plantomycin. Make solution in 45lt water and dip the seed in it for the night, dry it in shade and sow it in the nursery to control Bacterial blight. Generally, it is done by making a solution of 75gm thiram or 50gm carbendazim in 8-10lt water to treat 25kg seed. Dip the seed in it for few minutes and allow it to germinate before sowing in the nursery. Trichoderma biopesticide @ 125gm per 25kg seed can also be used to treat the seed.
Fertilizer Management in Black Rice cultivation:
- For Early Maturing, add NPK @ 120:60:60
- For High Yielding Medium Maturity, add NPK @ 150:60:60
Apply half the dose of N and full dose of P and K before transplanting as basal dressing and the remaining dose of nitrogen should be used in two instalments 1st at the time of tillering and the 2nd at the time of emergence of ears as top dressing.
Time of Transplanting for Black Rice seedlings: Generally 20-22 days old nursery black rice seedlings is consider good for transplanting. Maintain spacing of 20x15cm or 20x10cm and depth 3-4cm. Transplant 2-3 black rice plants per hill for better yield.
Gap filling: Fill the gap by replacing the dead plant with a new plant to maintain pproper plant population.
Weed Management: Mix Pretilachlore 30.7% EC @1.25lt with 15-20kg sand and broadcast it per hectare within 48 hours of sowing in nursery at proper moisture. Use Nominee Gold (bipyribeg sodium) @ 100 gm/acre after 10 days of transplanting at field moisture condition.
Water Management in Black Rice: In absence of rains irrigate the crop at tillering , ear emergence, flowering and grain filling stage.
Black Rice farming – Plant Protection: Major insects and pests of Black Rice are Root weevil, leaf roller, husk insect, hispa , bunka insect, stem borer, green, brown, white hoppers, Gandhi bug, and armyworm. Use CIBRC recommended effective and safe insecticides and pesticides. Major diseases of Black Rice are Sheath blight, Bacterial blight, false smut, etc. Use CIBRC recommended good quality fungicides, and bactericides in tine to control these diseases.
Harvesting of Black Rice
Harvesting of Black Rice is done when all the seeds turn completely black in color. The harvesting period of Black Rice is 110 to 130 days after transplanting. Harvester machine can also be used for Black Rice harvesting.
Select appropriate and suitable variety for sowing. Sow the seed after seed treatment. Use balance fertilizers on a soil test basis. A spray of Zn and Fe is essential. Maintain proper plant population per sqm (50×70 hills). Control weeds, insects pests, and diseases properly in time. Always prevents the Black rice plants from lodging.
Therefore, this is all abut Black Rice Farming and cultivation practices. For further information, comment below.