Introduction to Redgram Farming Package of Practices: Pigeon Pea is commonly known as red gram or arhar. It is a hardy crop and requires very little investment. It is consumed in the form of split pulse as dal. After chickpea, redgram is the second most important pulse crop.
Economic importance of Redgram Farming: Seeds of pigeon pea are rich in Iron, Iodine, and the essential amino acids like lycine, tyrosine, cysteine, and arginine. The husk of redgram pods and leaves obtained during threshing constitute a valuable fodder for cattle. Leaves are used to feed silkworm and plants are used to culture lac insect. Pigeonpea plants also act as windbreaks. Sticks of Pigeon pea are used for various purposes such as thatch, basket making, etc. Stems are also used as fuelwood and to make huts, baskets and are used for paper pulp. Being a Legume crop it consequently possesses valuable properties as a restorer of nitrogen to the soil.
Scientific name of Redgram: Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.
Pigeonpea Family: Leguminoceae/papilionaceae.
Vernacular names of Redgram: Redgram, Pigeon pea, Tur, Arhar,
List of Redgram varieties /cultivars:
|Local Redgram varieties||Palnadu LRG 30, Maruthi ICP 8863, ST 1, PRG 100 LRG 41, MRG-1004, ICP-8863.|
|Hybrid Redgram varieties||ICPH 2740, ICPL 14003, ICPL 332 WR (TDRG 4)|
Pre-sowing Package of Practices:
Climate requirement for Redgram farming: Redgram grows mainly in a tropical and sub-tropical climate. During vegetative growth, it prefers a mostly moist and warm climate. However, during Flowering, ripening and pod setting, cool and bright sunny days are necessary. It is raised in the area having 20-30ºC temperature during Kharif and 17-22º C during winter season. Temperature ranges 10 to 40ºC and the optimum is 20 to 28ºC. Cloudy weather and excessive rainfall at flowering damage the crop extent because of a deep root system. Grows up to 1500m altitude above MSL and well-distributed rainfall of 500 to 900mm.
Soil requirement for Redgram farming: It grows well on a wide range of soils from sandy loamy to clay loams. But it thrives best on fertile and well-drained loamy soils. Well-drained, alluvial, and loamy soils are good for pigeon pea cultivation. It can also be grown on heavy soils with good drainage as it is very susceptible to waterlogging during the Seedling Stage. It can be grown successfully on soils having a pH range of 6.5-7.5.
Land preparation in Redgram farming: Being a deep-rooted crop, it requires deep, well pulverized properly tilled and well-drained seed bed. Deep ploughing by soil turning plough to a depth of 15cm followed by 2-3 discing and harrowing followed by planking is essential. If necessary leveling should be done to avoid stagnation of water, ensure uniform irrigation and proper drainage.
Cultural practices in Redgram Farming Package of Practices:
|Redgram Seed rate||Long, medium and short duration varieties 15-25kg/ha.|
|Redgram Seed treatment||Carbendazim or Thiram @ 2g/kg seed 24 hours before sowing (or) Trichoderma virdie @4g/kg of seed (or) Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10g/kg. Always follow FIR method of seed treatment viz., fungicide followed by insecticide and Rhizobium or biocontrol agents.|
|Sowing||Crop is sown in line by drilling the seeds in soil with the help of seed drill. The optimum depth of sowing should be 4-5 cm. and should not exceed above. Broad bed and furrow (BBF) system is more useful in heavy soils.|
|Spacing in Redgram||Long/medium duration varieties 75×30 cm, Short duration varieties 45×30 cm. Hybrids 90 x 45 cm.|
|Fertilizer requirement||25-30 kg N, 50-70.kg P2O5, 30-50kg K2O. Per hectare. It shows susceptibility to Zinc deficiency. Soil application of 2-4 ppm zinc or foliar spray of 0.5% zinc sulphate with 0.05% lime has proved effective in controlling zinc deficiency.|
|Water requirement||WUE legume 500 kg water/kg DMP. Irrigate immediately after sowing, 3rd day after sowing, bud initiation, 50% flowering and pod development stages, Water stagnation should be avoided. 200-250mm.|
|Weed management||Redgram grows very slowly during early growth period of 45-50days if weeds are not controlled properly the yield reduction may reduce to an extent of 90%. Weeding and hoeing at 25-30 DAS and 45-55 DAS found effective. Pre-emergence application of Alachlor @ 3 l/ha. Spray Fluchloralin 1.5 l/ha (or) Pendimethalin 2 l/ha 3 DAS + one hand weeding may be given on 30 to 35 days after sowing.|
Insect Pest management in Redgram farming:
|Insect Pest Name||Symptoms||Chemical control||Natural/ Biological control|
|Pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera)||The caterpillar makes holes in pod, insert the head and feed from otside on developing seeds.||Spray monocrotophos 36EC @1.5 L in 10000 lit of water.||Collect and destroy caterpillar in early stage.|
|Pod fly (Melanagromyza obtuse)||Causes severe damage varying from 20-60% in medium & late varieties. Small black fly lays eggs in tender pods. Larvae grow and feed on the seeds. Stripes are seen on the surface of affected grains. Pods are twisted or deformed||Spray Dimethoate 30% EC 1237 ml/ha or Emamecetin benzoate 5% SG 220g/ha.||Bird perches 50/ha. Mechanical collection of grown up larva and blister beetle. Neem oil 2%. Bacillus thurengensis serovar kurstaki (3a,3b,3c) 5% WP1000-1250 g/ha.|
|Plume moth (Exelastis atomosa)||Pin head size holes on pods. Small and spiny caterpillars with pupae seen on the pods.||Indoxacarb 15.8% SC333 ml/ha or Dimethoate 30% EC 1237 ml/ha or Chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC 150 ml/ha.||Bird perches 50/ha. NSKE 5% twice followed by triazophos 0.05%. Neem oil 2%.|
|White fly (Bemisia tabaci)||Leaves mottled and Yellowish in colour.||Spray Methyl demeton 25 EC 500 ml/ha or Phosphomidon 85 WSC 250 ml/ha or Dimethoate 30EC 500 ml/ha.||Shaking the infested plants over the vessels of oil or soap solution.|
Disease Management in Redgram farming:
|Disease||Causal organism||Symptoms||Chemical control||Natural/ Biological control|
|Fusarium wilt||Fusarium udum.||Soil borne disease caused by fungus, Affected leaves becomes yellow, drooped & plant dries up.||Seed treatment with talc formulation of T.viride @ 4g or carbendazim 10g/ka or Thiram @2g/kg.||Collecting and buring of plant trashes after harvesting of crops. Soil sterilization in summer with deep ploughing.|
|Root rot||Scelerotial stage: Rhizoctoniia bataticola Pycnidial stage: Macrophomina phaseolina||Caused by fungus, it occurs in young seedling and grown up plants. Affected plant show formation of dark brown lessions on the stem near soil surface.||Soil application of P. Flurescens or T. viride @ 2.5kg/ha + 50 kg of well decomposed FYM or sand at 30DAS. Soil Drenching with Carbendazim @ 1gm/litre.||Growing of Resistant varieties. Cultivation of redgram in well drained soils.|
|Powdery mildew.||Leveilula taurica.||Infested leaves show powdery patches on the lower surface corresponding with yellowing of leaves on the upper surface. The disease is Air borne disease.||Spray Carbendazim 1g/lit of wettable sulphur 2.5g/lit.||Neem oil 3% twice 10days intervals from initial disease appearance.|
|Sterility Mosaic||Sterility Mosaic Virus||It is transmitted by eripohyid mites from one plant to another. Affected plant becomes pale green and leaf size. No flowering and deformity.||Spraying of Metasystox 0.1% to control mites.||Sowing of resistant varieties like Asha Sharas, Pusa-9 etc.|
Nutrient deficiency symptoms and Management in Redgram farming:
|Zinc||Stunted growth with pale green or yellow leaves with narrowing. Interveinal chlorosis starting from tip of the leaflets and spreading to the remaining area living only the midrib green.||Foliar spray of Zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) @0.5% at fortnightly interval or Soil application of ZnSO4 @10-15 kg/ha.|
Maturity indices in Redgram cultivation: Redgram is an intermediate growth type and the growth is continued with reproductive phase. The pods attained a physiological maturity at 40 days after 50% flowering.
Harvesting and Yield in Redgram Farming:
Harvesting of Redgram: Harvest the plants when 80% of the pods are mature. Stack the plants for a few days. Separate the pods with sticks and grains are separated from husk and dried to optimum moisture level (10-12%) The harvesting is done when 75% of pods turn brown. Extra early varieties mature in 110-115 days, early varieties in 135-160 days, medium late in 160-200 days, and late varieties in more than 200 days. The harvesting is done with a sickle by cutting from 7.5-25cm above the ground level. Harvested plants are left in the sun for drying. Threshing is done either by beating the pods with a stick or by the mechanical thresher.
Yield of Redgram: the yield of Redgram ranges from 20-25q/ha but improved technology 3-6 t/ha grains and 50-60 quintal sticks can be obtained.
Economics of Redgram Farming
|Rental cost of land||5000|
|Total Cost of cultivation (A)||16070|
|Income from selling the whole produce (B)||1,20,000.|
|Net profit (B – A)||103930.|
Post harvesting management practices in Redgram Farming Package of Practices: Cleaning of seeds by handpicking or electric fan, manual winnowing at the time of cleaning should be done. Grading of seeds according to its size and shape can be graded through manual grading with bigger whole iron sieves. Bagging can be done in jute (gunny bags), Mud bin, polythene bags. Store it at room temperature. Care should the taken that the optimum moisture content in seeds should be 8-10%.
Conclusion: This is all about Redgram or pigeonpea cultivation and farming guide. Gor more queries, comment below.