Introduction to Bengal gram Farming Package of Practices:
Bengal gram also known as Chickpea is the oldest known legume to mankind. This article will let you know all about the Bengal gram farming Package of practices. The remains that have been found in the Middle East were 7500 years old. The place of origin is western Asia, the present Turkey According to 2018 statistics the production of the world is 17.2 million tonnes. India has a total of 77 % of the world’s area and Production followed by Australia, the United States, Turkey, Myanmar, and Ethiopia. Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh accounts for 84% of area and production in India. The average Productivity is 810kg/ ha.
Economic importance of Bengal gram Farming:
Bengal gram is lower in protein (22%) and has portions of fat (2.2%) carbohydrates (66%). It contains micronutrients such as Calcium (190mg/100g); Iron (90mg/100g); phosphorus 280mg/100g. It has high biological value and protein digestibility. It is used in the manufacturing of drugs. Germinated seeds can cure scurvy, intestinal disorders, and helps in blood purification. The granular hair of chickpea leaves and pods contains malic acid (90-96%) and oxalic acid (4-10%). Soaked seed and husk are fed to cattle.
The Scientific name of Bengal gram: Cicer arietinum L.
Vernacular names of Bengal gram: Chick pea, Channa, Sanaga Pappu, Kadale Kaalu, Shimbrann, Garbanzo bean, Indian bean, Cici bean, etc.,
List of Bengal gram varieties /cultivars:
|Characters||Desi type||Kabuli type|
|Area under cultivation||More area||Less area|
|Colour of the seed||Yellow to dark||White/cream|
|Size of the seed||Small||Large bold and attractive|
|The shape of the seed||Irregular and wrinkled||Smooth|
|Plant structure||Small and bushy||Taller and erect|
|Percentage of production||85%||15%|
|yield potential||High yielders||Low yielders|
|Varieties||Jyothi, Annegevil||Kranthi, Swetha|
Popular Bengal gram varieties are Radhey, Gwalior, Vikas, chabba; Vikas, Vishal, and Avarodi are wilts tolerant; CO-2, BDN, Ujjain, JG-8, Ujjain-24, JG-221, JG- 8, JG-74, JG-62, ST-4, Br-77, Br- 65, Br- 78, H-355, H-208, B-124, B-115, Selection, ASS-II, RS-10, C-214, C-235, Hare- Chole No. 1, G-543, G- 24, G-130, T-1, T-2, Pant G-114, K-850, K-408, Pusa- 209, B-203, Iccu – 4. Pusa 261, C-104, K-5, L-550
Cropping systems in Bengal gram farming: Rice- Chickpea, Cotton- Chickpea
Intercropping crops in Bengal gram farming: Mustard, Linseed, Sunflower, Coriander
Pre-sowing Package of Practices in Bengal gram Farming
Climate requirement for Bengal gram farming: Chickpea is a winter season crop but severe cold and frost are injurious to it causing to failure of seed development. Generally grown under rainfed conditions but gives good yields in well – irrigated conditions. The optimum temperature is 24-30 degrees Celsius. The duration of the crop is 160-170 days in cool temperature and shorter of about 160-170 in warmer conditions.
Soil requirement for Bengal gram farming: Though sandy loam to clay loam is most suitable, it is grown in a wide range of soils. The PH should not be higher than 8.5. Generally grown on moderately heavy soils in the northern states of India. The best soil is well – drained and not too heavy.
Land preparation in Bengal gram farming: Land preparation for sowing chickpea is predicated on the soil type and cropping system. Chickpea is highly sensitive to soil erosion. In the case of an important soil, a rough seedbed is ready to avoid packing of the cloddy surface thanks to winter rains and to facilitate soil aeration and easy seedling emergence. When chickpea is cultivated as a mixed crop with linseed or mustard, the land is ready to a fine tilth. It is necessary to deep- ploughing the field at the beginning of the rainy season, ensuring efficient moisture conservation. Deep ploughing also reduces the wilting of chickpea that tends to develop due to the presence of hardpans in the root zone.
Cultural practices in Bengal gram Farming Package of Practices
|Seed rate||Desi- 65-70 (kg/ha); Kabuli- 80-90 (kg/ha)|
|Seed treatment||Carbendazim or Thiram @ 2gm/Kg, Thichoderma viridae @ 4g/kg or pseudomonas fluorescence @ 10g/kg followed by Rhizobium 200g/ha|
|Sowing||Sowing time is middle October to first fortnight of November; the depth of sowing is 6-8 Cm|
|Spacing||Desi type- 30X10; Kabuli type- 45X10 in Cm|
|Fertilizer requirement||Rainfed chickpea- 10:40:20 NPK(kg/ha); Irrigated Chickpea- 20:60:40 NPK(kg/ha)|
|Water requirement||@Branching stage 45 DAS and Pod formation (75DAS)|
|Weed management||Spray pre emergency herbicides viz., Bentagen(1.0- 1.5kg/ha or Pendimethalin(0.5-1.0 a.i kg /ha) or Pendimethalin (0.5%) + Imazethpyr(50g) or Pre plant incorporation of Fluchloralin (0.5-1.0 a.i kg /ha) or Trifluralin(0.5-0.7%).|
Insect Pest Management in Bengal gram farming
|Insect Pest||Symptoms||Chemical control||Natural/ Biological control|
|Gram caterpillar (Helicoverpa armigera)||Yellowish shiny, sculptured eggs are laid singly on tender parts of plants, feeding of foliage.||Spray Chlorpyriphos @2.5 ml/l at the initiation of flowers or Quinalphos @2ml/l or acephate 1.5g/l at pod formation stage using 750 – 1000 lt of spray fluid or indoxacarb @1ml/l or spinosad 0.3 ml/l when affected severely.||Deep ploughing, intercropping, crop rotation, check on ovipositional niches, monitoring by installing pheromone traps, mechanical shaking. Spraying NPV200 LE/ha B.t formulation 400g or 400 ml/ac thrice at weekly intervals is effective.|
|Spotted pod borer (Maruca vitrata)||Feeds the tender parts of the plant.||Foliar spray from flower bud initiation with combination of chlorpyriphos @2.5 ml/l or quinalphos 2 ml/l or novaluron @0.75ml/l or spinosad @0.75ml/l or lamda cyhalothrin @1ml/l + dichlorvos @1ml /l at regular intervals.||Crop rotation, intercropping, deep ploughing, deep sowing.|
Disease Management in Bengal gram farming
|Disease||Causal organism||Symptoms||Chemical control||Natural/ Biological control|
|Wilt||Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri||The vascular discoloration is observed on the longitudinal splitting of stem.||Treat the seeds with Carbendazim or Thiram @2 g/kg or treat the seeds with Trichoderma viride @4 g/kg or Pseudomonas fluorescens @10g/kg of seed.||Apply heavy doses of organic manure or green manure. Follow 6-year crop rotation with non-host crops.|
|Rust||Uromyces ciceris-arietini||The infection appears as small oval, brown, powdery lesions on both the surface, especially on lower surface of leaf.||Destroy weed host. Dust Sulphur @20 kg/ha or spray Mancozeb @0.25%.||Crop rotation, intercropping, deep ploughing.|
|Ascochyta blight||Ascochyta rabiei||Blighted plants in the field, spots on leaves and pycnidia in concentric circles.||Exposure of seed at 40-500C reduced the survival of A. rabiei by about 40-70 percent. Spray with Carbendazim @0.1% or Chlorothalonil @0.3%.||Crop rotation, intercropping, deep ploughing, deep sowing.|
|Dry root rot||Rhizoctonia bataticola||Yellowing, rotting, roots remain when uprooted.||Treat the seeds with Carbendazim or Thiram at @2g/kg or seed pelleting with Trichoderma viride at 4g/kg or Pseudomonas fluorescens @10g/kg of seed. Apply farmyard manure @10t/ha. Grow tolerant genotypes like ICCV 10.||Crop rotation, intercropping, deep ploughing, deep sowing.|
Nutrient deficiency symptoms in Bengal gram farming
|Zinc||Chlorosis in leaves and then turn to rusty brown colour.||0.5% 0f Zinc sulphate spray or soil application of 25Kg/ha of Zinc Sulphate.|
|Iron||Symptoms first appear on younger leaves, the whole leaf turns yellow to white, Interveinal chlorosis, stunted growth, and poor pod set.||Foliar spray of Feso4 @0.5 %.|
|Potassium||Severe chlorosis appears at the edges of leaves gradually progresses towards the centre.||Foliar spray of 1% KCL.|
Maturity indices in Bengal gram cultivation: Leaves turn to reddish – brown and start shedding and completion of duration.
Harvesting and Yield in Bengal gram Farming
Harvesting of Bengal gram: In North India, the crop comes to harvest in 160-170 days whereas its shorter towards the south i.e., 90-110 days in it is done by threshing; under the cattle feet or beating with sticks. Plants are pulled out or cut with a sickle and carried to the threshing floor.
Yield of Bengal gram: 20-25 qt/ha approximately.
Economics of Bengal gram Farming
|Fertilizers and manures, Insecticides, Fungicides, Herbicides, Inter-cultivation practices, Miscellaneous||4268|
|Interest on working capital @ 7%||747|
|Subtotal (Operational cost + Fixed cost)||23712|
|Managerial cost @ 10%||2371|
|Cost of Production (Rs/Qtl)||4173|
Expenditure to be incurred for Bengal gram cultivation normally amounts to about Rs. 26,083/acre. The expected income with a yield of 7-8 quintal/acre would be around Rs. 38,500. The net profit would be about Rs. 12,417 for a season. Furthermore, the social benefit would be enormous than monetary benefit. However, better management practices in Bengal gram cultivation may lead to higher profits in farming.
Post harvesting management practices in Bengal gram Farming Package of Practices:
- Adding red earth
- Husking and splitting
- Dehusked split pulses
- Packing and Marketing
Conclusion: This is all about the Bengal gram/ Chickpea framing Package of practice. Comment below for any queries related to Bengal gram/chickpea cultivation.