Introduction to Sugarcane package and practices
Sugarcane belongs to genus Saccharum and family poaccace. Sugar cane has both statically and nutrient value importance, its botanical description is of shoot system, rootage and growth phase, sugarcane is an agro-industrial, commercial and sugar crop which is also a cash crop.
Climate requirement for Sugarcane farming: Sugar cane requires tropical, sub-tropical and temperate zones, it requires long sunny days with optimum temperature and enough water. Temperature above 46 c enhances the expansion and temperature below 20 c slows down the expansion, coldness reduces the tillering, temperature range 25-35 c is the best for the expansion, and it requires rainfall of 750 to 1200 mm annually
Soil requirement for Sugarcane farming: Sugar, cane grows altogether range of soils from sandy loam to clay loam. Soil should be drained, always the simplest growth occurs in loamy soils
List of Sugarcane varieties:
Sugarcane varieties the recommended sorts of sugarcane are
Crop rotations to follow in Sugarcane farming
These rotations were wiped out two years span
1. Maize, potato, sugar cane
2. Paddy, potato, sugar cane
3. Beseem fodder- sugarcane
Intercropping pattern in Sugarcane farming
1. Sugarcane + moong 2. Sugarcane+ urdbean 3. Sugarcane + cowpea
Land preparation for Sugarcane farming: Requires deep tillage for growth and development of rootage. One deep ploughing with soil turning plough, 2-3 cross harrowing with disc harrowing, 5-6 ploughing with desi plough. These practices are going to be made for a smooth planting
Seed treatment for Sugarcane sets
Sets were been treated against pests and disease for honest germination to bring healthy and better yield 1. Coldwater treatment: — soak the canes to be used for planting in cold water for 12 hours for 15% higher germination result 2. Predicament treatment: — soak the sets in predicament for 5-7 minutes. This treatment helps in converting sucrose into glucose during a higher amount
Methods of planting in Sugarcane farming
Flat method of planting is suitable for sugarcane. Shallow (8-10 cm deep). Furrows are opened with a distance at 75 cm, then the sector is roofed with 5-7 cm soil, and field is levelled with planker
Nutrient management in Sugarcane farming
Sugarcane needs heavy nutrients 50tonns of FYM/compost /ha should be used before the planting sets, just in case FYM isn’t available the subsequent fertilizer schedule is suggested nutrient kg/ha fertilizer kg/ha N 150 urea 265 P 75 DAP 165 K 75 MOP 125 apply N and total p & k at planting time, remaining n in two splits dose i.e. At the time of the beginning of tillering introduce June and rest at the expansion stage in July and August.
Major diseases of Sugarcane and Diseases management in Sugarcane farming
Red rot of Sugarcane — Colletotrichum falcatum
Symptoms: The first external symptom appears totally on the third or fourth leaf which withers away at the ideas along the margins. Typical symptoms of red rot are observed within the internodes of a stalk by splitting it longitudinally. These include the reddening of the interior tissues which are usually elongated at right angles to the long axis of the stalk. The sugarcane stalk becomes hollow and covered with white mycelial growth of the fungus.
Management of Red rot of Sugarcane disease
1. Crop rotation with rice and manure crops.
2. Select the setts from the disease-free fields or disease-free areas.
3. Avoid rationing of the diseased crop.
4. Soak the setts in 0.1% carbendazim or triadimefon 0.05% solution for quarter-hour before planting. 5. Grow resistant varieties co 62198, co 7704 and moderately resistant varieties co 8001, co8201.
6. Sets are often treated with aerated steam at 520C for four to five hours and by moist hot air at 540C for about two hours.
Grassy shoot disease of Sugarcane
Symptoms: The grassy shoot disease of sugarcane appears nearly two months after planting. The disease is characterized by the assembly of various lanky tillers from the bottom of the affected shoots. Leaves become straw to completely chronic, thin, and narrow. The typical symptom of these diseases is plants appear bushy and grass-like thanks to reduction within the length of internodes premature and continuous tillering. The affected clumps are stunted with the premature proliferation of auxiliary buds. Cane formation rarely occurs within the affected clumps, if formed, thin with shorter internodes having aerial roots at the lower nodes. The buds on such infested canes become papery and abnormally elongated growth.
Management of Grassy shoot disease of Sugarcane
1. Eradication of diseased parts as soon as symptoms are seen.
2. Avoid selection of setts from the diseased area.
3. Pre-treating the healthy setts with predicament at 520C for one hour before planting
4. Treating them with hot air at 540C for eight hours.
5. Spraying the crop twice a month with insecticides.
Ration stunting disease of Sugarcane
Symptoms: Diseased cane clumps display stunted growth with reduced tillers, thin stalks with shortened internodes and yellowish foliage. Orange-red vascular bundles in reminder yellow at the nodes are seen within the infected canes.
Management of Ration stunting disease of Sugarcane
1. Select the setts from disease-free fields or disease-free commercial nursery.
2. Remove and burn the clumps showing the disease incidence.
3. Treat the setts before planting, as specified for grassy shoot disease.
Insect Pest management in Sugarcane farming
Termites: Apply inecticides like Chlorpyriphos 20EC (5 lt. in 1500 lt. of water) over the sets in-furrow at the time of planting, to stop the attack of termites.
Sugarcane Borers: Spray insecticides like cartap hydrochloride 4G granules@ 25 kg/ha.
Water management in Sugarcane farming
Mainly irrigation depends on the climate, soil and cultural practices. Maintain sufficient soil moisture content at the time of sowing. First irrigation should be done when 20-25 % germination or 20 days after sowing, subsequent irrigation at an interval of 10-15 days during summer and 25-30 days in winter. If monsoon isn’t favourable, the crop should be irrigated during the season, whenever needed. The crop needs max water at the tillering stage and through elongation and growth stage thus, 10-12 irrigation s are required for obtaining an honest crop. Proper drainage should be maintained at waterlogged areas, it increases the cane yield and sucrose content within the juice
Intercultural operations in Sugarcane farming
First hoeing is completed one week after sowing to interrupt hard crust exposed. Second hoeing after three weeks after sowing, subsequent hoeing should be done after irrigation before tillering first earthing is completed in may and in june mid and second around mid-august
Weed management in Sugarcane farming
After four months period of sowing weed competition occurs in sugarcane. Weeds are often efficiently controlled by spraying 200 g/ karnal of atrazine in 25-30 lt of water three days after planting light irrigation after germination helps to control f weed population
Tying, wrapping, popping in Sugarcane farming: Tying should neutralize august after cane reaches 2-meter height. The dried leaves are been far away from the plants. Covers are wrapped to the bundles with green leaves. The clumps are further supported with bamboo sticks with another field
Harvesting of Sugarcane: Crop will mature within 10-12 months after sowing, the following steps should be observed before harvesting.
Maturity indices for Sugarcane harvesting in Sugarcane farming
1. Leaves turn yellow, the plant stops growing and arrows are formed
2. Canes become easier from the break at the nodes with metallic sounds
3. The buds swell out of nodes.
Conclusion: This is all about brief information on Sugarcane package of practices.