Passion fruit farming Introduction
The scientific name of passion fruit is Passiflora edulis. The delicious, nutritious and edible passion fruit which belongs to the family Passifloraceae grew at an altitude of 800-1500m above sea level. Its vine is woody, shallow-rooted, perennial and climbing with the help of its tendrils.
Global demand for Passion fruit
The fruit is grown worldwide in countries of Taiwan, India, Australia, New Zealand, Kenya, etc. The area under which the crop cultivated in India is most parts of Western Ghats which includes Nilgiris, Wynad, Kodaikanal, Shevroys, Coorg and Malabar and also grown in states of Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Nagaland and Mizoram. Passion fruit is commonly cultivated in warm and tropical regions and is raised in hilly areas and hence comes underhill farming system.
Benefits of Passion fruit farming and Health benefits of Passion fruit
Passion fruit is highly known for its fresh flavour and aroma which is used in making squash, nectar, and juice and is also used in case of preparation of cakes, jam, pies and ice cream. It is a rich source of vitamin A and C and also minerals such as Sodium, Magnesium, Sulphur and Chlorides to some extent.
About Passion fruit
The passion flowers are single and fragrant, with 5-7.5 cm wide, on new growth is borne at each of its nodes. The fruits are nearly round or ovoid in shape, which is 1.5 to 3 inches wide, has a smooth and waxy tough rind and the fruit colour ranges from dark purple with faint, fine white specks to light yellow in colour. The fruits are filled with double-walled, membranous sacs containing orange-coloured, pulpy juice. In addition, there are about 250 small, hard, dark brown or black, pitted seeds with high medicinal, aromatic and nutritive value. The exclusive species of Passiflora are the standard yellow (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.) and the purple (Passiflora edulis f. edulis), differing in pH and starch content.
The global market of Passion fruit
The global supply of passion fruit is estimated as 8.52 lakh tons totally, which includes most of the countries of Brazil, Mexico, Ecuador, Australia, Zimbabwe, Kenya and Columbia. Almost 95% of the production is from the yellow fruit for juice extraction, while purple fruit exclusively for fresh fruit trade. In India, passionfruit cultivation is confined to the states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and north-eastern states with an area and production of 9.11 thousand ha and 45.82 thousand tons. In this article, we will let you know all about Passion fruit farming in India, seeds of gold passion fruit farming, grafted passion fruit farming, benefits of passion fruit seeds, passion fruit leaves benefits, passion fruit cultivation in Tamil Nadu and passion fruit farming in Gujarat.
Passion fruit varieties list
In India commercial varieties of passion fruit comprises of Purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis), are
- Yellow Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa) and
- Kaveri Hybrid passion fruit (cross of Purple and Yellow cultivars).
Purple Passion Fruit: Vines are mostly suitable for higher elevations. Fruits are deep purple weighing 35-45 g each. The juice content varies from 31-35 per cent.
Yellow Passion Fruit: Vines are mostly suitable for lower elevations with less productive at higher elevations due to its susceptibility to low temperature. The fruit is bigger than the purple cultivar, each weighing about 60 gm. Juice content is less than purple fruit.
Kaveri Hybrid Passion Fruit: It is a hybrid cross of Purple and Yellow passion fruit cultivars that are developed at Central Horticulture Experimental Station, Indian Institute of Horticulture Research, Chettalli, Karnataka. A high yielding variety and the fruits are larger (80-90 g) with 30-35 % juice, 12% total sugars and about 3% acidity. Plants are tolerant to brown leaf spot, wilt, and collar rot, root-knot nematode and thrips.
Passion fruit farming Soil and Climate conditions
Light sandy loam to heavy loam rich soil having a pH of 5.5-6.5. In the case of hill farming, the slope should not be more than 15 per cent and its optimum temperature for its cultivation is 200Cto 300C.
Propagation: Passion fruit is mainly propagated by seeds and cuttings. Grafting also done on resistant rootstocks.
Seed selection for Passion fruit farming
Seeds of ripped fruits from vines yielding quality fruits should be collected and extracted by fermenting for 72 hours. Seeds are sown in nursery beds containing a mixture of soil, compost and sand (2:1:1) under shade. At three leaves stage seedling should be transplanted to polythene bags. The seedlings are then transplanted to the main field after 3-4 months.
Cutting: The cuttings of 30-35 cm are from mature vines of pencil thickness should be planted in nursery beds/polythene bags containing a mixture of soil, compost and sand (2:1:1) during the month of January-February and June-July. After 30 days the rooting emerges. The sprouted cuttings are transplanted to the main field after three months..
Spacing in Passion fruit farming
Kniffin system of training: spacing is 2m x 3m, accommodates 1666 plants/ha.
Bower system of training: spacing is 3m x 3, accommodates about 1110 plants/ha.
Planting: Planting is done mostly during cloudy days of May-June after the onset of monsoon. Pits of 45 cm x 45 cm x 45 cm are made at a spacing of 3m x 2m, on hill slopes/plains. The pits are then filled with a mixture of three parts of topsoil and one part of the compost. Turmeric and ginger can be grown as intercrops.
Training and pruning in Passion fruit farming
Either wooden poles or angle iron bars are fitted at a proper spacing of 3 m with length about 2 m above the soil. Steel wires are then drawn tight to form the upper wire which helps to protect passion fruit vines from strong wind. The leading vines of each plant to be tied to the stake up to it grows and reaches the wire. While training the leading vine its side branches are to be removed periodically.
Pruning is normally done after harvesting the fruits in the month of November-December. The lateral shoot is removed after completion of fruiting, which is cut back to 30 cm from the main leader vine of the plant. Pruning promotes new growth and results in increased yield.
Manuring in Passion fruit farming
Well rotten FYM @ 15 kg/vine/year is applied during the February-March months. 100: 50:100 g as N: PPs: K20 per vine annually are to be given in 2 splits during the month of February- March and July-August.
Water management in Passion fruit farming
Life irrigation to be given immediately after planting and after good establishment, irrigation at fortnight intervals to be provided, especially during the dry spell (December-March).
Insect Pests of Passion fruit
The major pests are fruit fly, mealy bug and aphids which can be controlled by keeping traps and with the help of biocontrol agents.
Disease pests of Passion fruit
The major diseases are brown spot, root rot and wilt which can be controlled by the application of biocontrol agents and assuring proper drainage facility.
Harvesting and yield in Passion fruit farming
Time of harvesting passion fruit is after 7-9 months from the date of planting. The harvesting index is turning of fruit colour from green to purple colour which indication ripening. The proper quality of fruit obtained only after harvesting fully ripened fruit. The average yield of purple passion fruit type is 8-10 t/ha, yellow type 10-12 t/ha and Kaveri hybrid yields 16-20 t/ha
Therefore, this all about Passion fruit farming. If you have any queries related to Passion fruit farming, comment below.