Introduction to Pomegranate Farming – Package of Practices
In this post, we will let you know about Pomegranate Farming Package of Practices, Pomegranate farming guide, the economic importance of Pomegranate Farming, insect pests and diseases of Pomegranate, list of Pomegranate hybrid and local varieties, postharvest practices in Pomegranate Farming, harvesting and yield of Pomegranate.
Scientific Name:Punica granatum L.
Common Name/ Vernacular Name: Anar, Madulai, Kamphoi, Dalimb, Danimma, Theibuhfai, Manding
List of Pomegranate Hybrid Varieties:
- MHP 7/2
List of Pomegranate Local varieties:
- Alandi or Vadki
- Muskati Red
- Spanish Ruby
- Ganesh (GB 1)
- G 137
- P 23
- P 26
- Yercaud 1
- Co 1
Pre sowing Package of practices in Pomegranate Farming:
Soil requirement of pomegranate: Pomegranate comes well in fertile alluvial soil which is rich in humus, good drainage facility. Pomegranate tolerates the salinity up to 6.0 dsm-1.
Climate requirement for pomegranate: Pomegranate is cultivated throughout the World under varied climatic conditions, but it is well suitable to the regions of arid climate with 380C temperature and 900 m above mean sea-level altitudes.
Land preparation in Pomegranate Farming: The planting system may be of the square system of planting or rectangular system of planting. Pits of 1m x 1m x 1m is dug. One month before planting the pits are dug and kept open for at least one month, to disinfect. Each pits to be filled with manure and bio-fertilizer in the topsoil.
Nutrient Application pomegranate: Done after every harvest based upon the recommendation.
Nursery seedbed preparation in pomegranate: Vegetative method of propagation mainly air-layering and stem cutting is done. The most popular method of propagation among this is air-layering.
Air-layering in Pomegranate Farming:
Healthy trees are selected. In which the upright branches of 1.5 cm diameter are selected, 2-3 cm in length is girdled and over the girdled portion the rooting hormone IBA is applied. A moist media is wrapped over the cut portion and covered with polyethylene strip. Both the ends of the polythene strip are tied up with the help of coir or jute thread. The rooting starts in 30 to 45 days and after good development, then rooting can be detached from the mother plant after 70 to 90 days of layering. Then they are transferred to nursery or polybags containing soil.
Transplanting in pomegranate: The saplings can be transplanted when they are 5 – 6 inches tall.
1st-year Package of practices in pomegranate:
Water management in pomegranate: 1500 – 2500 liters per year per tree required.
Nutrient management in pomegranate: 50-60 kg of FYM, 10-20 g of urea, 150-300 g of SSP, and MOP 90-120 g per plant.
2nd-year Package of practices in pomegranate:
Water management in pomegranate: 1800 – 2900 liters per year per tree required.
Nutrient management in pomegranate: 50-60 kg of FYM, 20-30 g of urea, 300-450 g of SSP, and MOP 90-120 g per plant.
3rd-year Package of practices in pomegranate:
Water management in pomegranate: 1900 – 3500 liters per season per tree required.
Nutrient management in pomegranate: 50-60 kg of FYM, 30-40 g of urea, 450-600 g of SSP, and MOP 100-130 g per plant.
4th – 5th-year Package of practices in pomegranate:
Water management in pomegranate: 2000 – 3700 liters per season per tree required.
Nutrient management in pomegranate: 50-60 kg of FYM, 35-45 g of urea, 600-700 g of SSP, and MOP 130-150 g per plant.
5th – 6th-year Package of practices in pomegranate:
Water management in pomegranate: 2300 – 4200 liters per season per tree required.
Nutrient management in pomegranate: 50-60 kg of FYM, 50-60 g of urea, 900-1200 g of SSP, and MOP 150-180 g per plant.
6th – 10th-year Package of practices in pomegranate:
Water management in pomegranate: 2500 – 4700 liters per season per tree required.
Nutrient management in pomegranate: 50-60 kg of FYM, 50-60 g of urea, 900-1200 g of SSP, and MOP 150-200 g per plant.
List of Weedicides with dosages:
- Bromacil – 3 kg/ha – pre-emergence
- Diuron – 4.0 kg/ha – pre-emergence
Natural weed control in pomegranate: Follow the practices such as mowing, mulching, and establishment of cover crops can suppress the weed growth.
Crop Protection measures in in Pomegranate Farming
Insect pests and their management in pomegranate farming
Anar butterfly – Deudorix Isocrates
Signs/ symptoms of the insect pest: presence of boreholes. These boreholes are plugged with excreta of the larvae.
Chemical control: spray fenvalerate at 0.05% at the time of 50% of fruit set.
Natural/ Biological control of the insect pest: pruning of affected branches and removing the eggs from the calyx.
Stem borer beetle – Coleosterna spinator
Signs/ symptoms of the insect pest: Tunnels and boreholes at the stem portion.
Chemical control: with the help of disposable syringe inject 5 – 10 ml of Dichlorvos at the rate of 0.25% and then seal the hole with clay.
Natural/ Biological control of the insect pest: detect for the dry branches and prune out earlier.
Disease management in pomegranate farming
Anthracnose disease of Pomegranate
Symptoms of the diseases: Small irregular black spots on leaves, calyx, and fruits which later turns to a dark brown depressed spot.
Chemical control: Apply Benomyl of 10 g in 10 liters of water.
Natural/ Biological control of the disease: Bio-control Aspergillus flavus is a good antagonist.
Maturity indices of pomegranate:
Fruit matures in 130-140 days after set. The color changes from green to yellowish to dark red.
Harvesting and Yield in Pomegranate Farming:
Harvesting in pomegranate: The first harvest occurs three years after planting. During August harvesting of fruits can be done.
Yield of pomegranate: The yield depends on the variety and the average yield is 20 to 25 tons per ha per year.
Post-harvest management in pomegranate: As pomegranate is highly susceptible to damage. Care to be taken while storage and transport. After harvest, the fruits are subjected to packaging. The packaging is done in corrugated fiber board which causes less damage to the fruits.
Marketing of pomegranate: Marketing is done through contractors.
Economics of pomegranate farming:
Cost of cultivation per hectare is around Rs. 5,00,000 and the BC ratio is 1.8. The cost of pomegranate per kg is around Rs.110.
Summary of pomegranate farming: Farmers can make more profit, as the demand for pomegranate in the domestic market as well as the foreign market is high.