Introduction to Pineapple farming package of practices:
Pineapple (Annanas comosus) belongs to the family Bromeliaceae. Pineapple is indigenous to the American continent, particularly in Brazil and Paraguay. Pineapple is well known for its pleasant flavour and taste. The pineapple grows to a height of 1.0 to 1.5 m tall and is a herbaceous perennial. The plant appears short with tough waxy leaves and stocky stems. Pineapple plants produces a side shoot called suckers after the first fruit. The plant usually produces 200 flowers that join together to produce individual multiple fruits. The TSS of the fruit is about 120 and 160 Brix and acid range is between 0.5 and 1.0%. The fruit is rich in vitamin A and vitamin C and minerals like calcium, magnesium, potassium, and iron. The fruits are consumed in its fresh state and also processed in different forms like canning, juice, candy, jam, etc.
In this post, we will let you know about, Pineapple farming business plan, Pineapple cultivation practices, Pineapple package of practices, pineapple farming profit, pineapple cultivation, cultural practices of pineapple, pineapple yield per hectare, pineapple cultivation time, pineapple cultivation guide, pineapple yield per hectare, top country in pineapple production in the world, planting material for pineapple, season for pineapples and other queries related to Pineapple farming.
Importance of pineapple as a fruit
- Pineapple is low in calories and contains a trace amount of vitamin A and vitamin K, phosphorus, zinc, and calcium.
- The fruits are rich in vitamin C which is essential to improve the immune system.
- They are good source of magnesium thus maintains healthy metabolism and also has antioxidant properties.
- Pineapple has high antioxidant property especially flavonoids and phenolic acids.
- It also contains enzymes such as bromelain. This can ease the digestion. Bromelain is also used as a meat tenderizer.
- Bromelain has anti-inflammatory properties, thus protects from arthritis.
Economic importance of Pineapple cultivation:
The Worldwide pineapple growing countries are the Philippines, Malaysia, Hawaiian Islands, Australia, Mexico, Kenya, Ghana, Taiwan, South Africa, Brazil, Puerto Rica, and India. India produces nearly 1.53 million tons of pineapple with productivity of 15.3 tons per hectare. Indian states involved in the pineapple production are West Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Kerala, Bihar, Karnataka, and Bihar.
Thailand stands first in pineapple production worldwide followed by the Philippines and Brazil. One- third of its fruit production is utilized for processing and only the remaining is consumed for fresh. India is the fifth leading country in the production of pineapple with 1.2 million tonnes in production. The area under pineapple cultivation in India is about 77 thousand hectares. West Bengal stands first in the production of pineapple among the states of India.
Climate and soil requirement for Pineapple cultivation
Pineapple comes up well in all kinds of soil except in heavy clay soil. Among which sandy soil is good for pineapple cultivation. The temperature requirement is between 22 and 320 C. the optimum rainfall requirement is 100 to 150 cm. The pH requirement is 5.0 to 6.0.
List of Pineapple varities to grow commercially
Kew: this variety is particularly grown for canning purposes. Kew is a late-maturing variety and vigorous with long and straight margined leaves. Leaves having spines at its tip and base and are irregularly arranged. The fruits are tapering towards the crown and are oblong in the shape of a bigger size. The fruit weighs about 1.5 to 2.5 kg and is yellow. The acid content is 0.6 to 1.2 % and the TSS is 12 to 160 Brix.
Queen: The fruit is crisp textured suitable for table purposes with good aroma and a pleasant aroma. The fruit turns golden – yellow when fully matured and its inner flesh colour also turns deep golden yellow colour with less juice content than kew variety. The plants are dwarf with a compact growth habit. The leaves are bluish-green and are short, stiff and spiny covered with white bloom on both sides. The fruit weighs about 0.9 to 1.3 kg. the eyes on the fruit are small and prominent. The acid content of the fruit is 0.6 to 0.8 % and the TSS content varies between 150 and 170 Brix.
Mauritius: This is grown in some parts of Kerala and Meghalaya in India. The fruit is exclusively grown for table purposes. Fruits may be of deep yellow or red and are medium-sized, whereas the yellow variety is fibrous and medium sweet in comparison with red. The leaves are yellow and spiny throughout the margin.
Propagation material of Pineapple
The propagation materials are suckers and slips which produces flowers earlier than by crown. The slips of 45 to 55 cm sized weighing 350 to 450 g gives an earlier flowering and fruiting uniformly. In the case of suckers, 55 to 60 cm sized weighing 500 to 700 g are selected as ideal for planting. Crown of 5 to 10 cm is selected for planting.
Spacing in Pineapple farming
In the double row system, the spacing followed is 30 cm x 60 cm x 90 cm covers 43,500 plants per hectare.
Planting procedure for Pineapple cultivation
The pineapple is planted in two systems: single row system and double row system. In single-row system is low-density planting and is inefficient causing sunburn due to inadequate shade. Double row system involves in maximum use of available land thus giving more profit. This protects from sunburn, weed infestation and lodging of plants by mutual support.
The pineapple suckers are first allowed to dry for about 30 to 35 days before planting. As planting the fresh suckers in moist soil or under rainy season may cause decaying of the suckers. For facilitating better rooting, drying of suckers is a must. September is the best time for planting.
Pineapple is mostly grown as a rain-fed crop. Under irrigation conditions, irrigation is given at an interval of 10 to 15 days.
By the application of ethrel at 0.25 mi per liter promotes flower induction. After application plants start flowering in 45 to 50 days.
Earthing up is done to encourage the plants. Especially for plants under a flatbed system during heavy rainfall.
The major problem in pineapple cultivation is water loss ad weeds. Mulching can be done to overcome these problems.
Insect Pests and diseases of Pineapple
Insect pest of Pineapple: Mealybug is the major pest in pineapple. This can be controlled by releasing predators or by the application of Dimethoate at 2.5 ml per liter.
Diseases of Pineapple: Heart rot or stem rot and root rot is the major disease in pineapple. This can be solved by selecting healthy plant materials and treating the plant materials with Dithane Z-78 at 3 g per liter of water.
Harvest and yield of Pineapple
Harvesting of Pineapple: Pineapples are harvested after 15 to 18 months of planting.
Pineapple yield per hectare: The yield of Pineapple per hectare is 40 to 50 tons approximately.
Conclusion: This is all about Pineapple package of practices. If you have any queries, comment below.