Introduction to Brinjal Farming Package of Practices:
Brinjal (Solanum melongena) also called as eggplant belongs to the nightshade family, Solanaceae. It is native to the Indian subcontinent. It is often called as a poor man’s vegetable because it is popular amongst small-scale farmers. It has very high water content and a very good source of fibre, calcium, phosphorus, and vitamins B and C.
In this article, we will let you know about seed rate of brinjal, the yield of brinjal, types of brinjal, care for a brinjal plant, brinjal cultivation, brinjal field preparation, brinjal varieties names and brinjal presowing to post-harvesting methods.
The land must be well fertile with high organic content. Highly free from volunteer plants with good drainage facilities is recommended. Good irrigation facilities are also needed.
Soil for Brinjal farming:
Brinjal is grown in many types of soils from sand to heavy clayey loam soils. Good texture of the soil is very important. Brinjal crop prefers soil ranging from pH 6.5 to 7.5.
Climatic condition requirement for Brinjal farming:
Brinjal is a warm-season crop and therefore very sensitive to severe frost. Less temperature during the cold season causes malformation of fruits. A long dry and warm growing season is desirable for successful brinjal production. Brinjal seed germinates well at 25 degree Celsius. The optimum season is December – January and May – June.
Nursery preparation for for Brinjal seedlings:
Apply FYM 10 kg, enriched superphosphate 100 g and Furadon 10 g per square meter before sowing. Nursery area required for raising seedling for planting 1.0 ha main area is 100 sq. m.
Seed rate for Brinjal farming:
Seed required for planting one hectare for varieties is 400 g and for hybrids is 200 g.
Seed treatment of Brinjal seeds:
Seed treatment with Trichoderma viride @ 4 g / kg or Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g / kg of seed. Seed treatment with Azospirillum @ 40 g / 400 g of seeds using rice gruel as a binder. Irrigation can effectively take place with rose can. In raised nursery beds, seeds can be sown in lines at 10 cm apart and covered with sand. Transplantation of the seedlings 30 – 35 days after sowing at 60 cm apart in the ridges is effective.
Main field preparation in Brinjal farm:
Preparation of the field with the application of FYM @ 25 t / ha and form ridges and furrows at a spacing of 60 cm apart. Application of 2 kg/ha of Azospirillum and 2 kg/ha of Phosphobacteria by mixing with 50 kg of FYM and sand. Irrigation of the furrows and transplanting 30-35 days old seedlings at 60 cm apart on the ridges is effective.
Transplanting of Brinjal seedlings on to Brinjal fields:
The seedlings are ready in 4-5 weeks after sowing for transplanting when they attain a height of 12-15 cm with 3 – 4 leaves stage.
Spacing in Brinjal farming:
The spacing recommended for varieties is 60 X 60 cm and for hybrids is 90 X 60 cm.
Manures and fertilizers for Brinjal farming:
Application of 2 kg of Azospirillium and 2 kg of Phosphobacteria at the time of transplanting as a basal dose.
List of Brinjal seed varities
Application of basal dose of FYM 25t / ha and NPK 50:50:30 kg/ha with the top dressing of 50 kg N/ ha on 30th day of planting.
List of Brinjal Hybrid varities:
Application of basal dose of FYM 25 t / ha, and NPK 100:150:100 kg/ha with the top dressing of 100 kg N/ha on 30th day of planting.
Mulching for Brinjal farming:
Mulching with black low-density polyethene sheets of 25-micron thickness and bury both the ends into the soil to a depth of 10 cm.
Weed control in Brinjal farming:
Application of Pendimethalin 1.0 kg a.i. / ha or Fluchloralin 1.0 kg a.i / ha as pre-emergence herbicide along with hand weeding once at 30 days after planting is found effective for weed control.
Irrigation in Brinjal field:
After the proper establishment of seedlings, irrigate at weekly intervals or as and when needed.
After cultivation practices in Brinjal farming:
Topdressing and earthing up on 30th day of planting is effective.
Spraying of 2 ppm Triacontanol plus Sodium Borate at the rate of 35 mg / l of water 15 days after transplanting and at the time of full bloom to increase the yield.
Insect pest and Disease management in Brinjal farming
Insect Pests in Brinjal farming:
Brinjal Shoot and fruit borer (BSFB) insect:
- Remove the affected terminal shoot showing boreholes for proper control.
- Avoid using synthetic pyrethroids.
- Spraying of dimethoate 30 EC @ 7.0 ML / 1 l of water.
- Collection of beetles, grubs, pupae and destroy.
- Spraying of quinalphos 20 % AF @ 2.5 ml/liter of water.
Brinjal Whitefly: Monitoring the whitefly with a yellow sticky trap at the rate of 12 Nos./ha.
Ash weevil: Application of Carbofuran 3 G at 15 kg/ha at 15 days after planting of brinjal.
Aphid: Application of phorate 10G @ 15 kg / ha for immediate control.
Red spider mite: Apply phorate 10 % G @15 kg /ha or any pesticide like dicofol 18.5 % SC @ 2.0 ml / liter of water.
Diseases of Brinjal:
Damping-off of Brinjal: Seed treatment with Trichoderma viride 4 g/kg or Pseudomonas fluorescens 10 g /kg of seed 24 hours before sowing of seeds. Application of Pseudomonas fluorescens as soil application @ 2.5 kg/ha mixed with 50 kg of FYM and sand. Water stagnation should be avoided. Drenching with Copper oxychloride at 2.5 g / lit at 4 lit / sq.m is also effective.
Leaf spot of Brinjal: Leaf spot can be effectively controlled by spraying Mancozeb 2 g/lit for control.
Little leaf of Brinjal: Removing the affected plants in the early stages of the attack and spraying Methyl demeton 30 EC @ 1.0 ml/lit to control the vector.
Harvesting in Brinjal farming:
Brinjal fruits are harvested on attaining full size and colour but before the start of ripening. Tenderness with bright colour and glossy appearance of the fruit is the optimum stage for the harvesting of fruits.
Yield of Brinjal:
The yield varies from season to season, time to time, variety to variety and location to location. It yields about 25 to 30 t / ha for varieties and hybrids about 60 to 80 t / ha.
Conclusion of Brinjal Farming:
Brinjal is the most important crop in tropics which yields better with less management practice. It adapts well with all type of soil and climatic conditions. It has high nutritive value and commercially grown for many purposes. However, we will come up with the article on organic brinjal farming, cost of cultivation of brinjal, brinjal farming profit in India and protected cultivation of brinjal soon.