Model Bankable Project on Hi-Tech Agriculture
Hi-tech Agriculture Farming is a method of precision farming on a smaller scale where plant protection and fertigation are applied at the rhizosphere zone and plants are grown in precise conditions of temperature and humidity for uniformity and maximization of the agriculture produce/yield.
There are two approaches for establishing a best-protected cultivation farming viz., Greenhouse/poly house system and open-air system.
Classification of greenhouses:
1. Greenhouse type based shape:
a) Lean-to type greenhouse.
b) Even span type of greenhouse.
c) Uneven span type of greenhouse.
d) Ridge and furrow type.
e) Sawtooth type.
f) Quonset greenhouse.
g) Interlocking ridges and furrow type Quonset greenhouse.
h) Ground to the ground greenhouse.
2. Greenhouse type based Utility:
a) Greenhouses for active heating.
b) Greenhouses for active cooling.
3. Greenhouse type based construction
a) Wooden framed structure.
b) Pipe framed structure.
c) Truss framed structure.
4. Greenhouse type based building material
a) Glass glazing.
b) Fiber Glass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) glazing (Plain sheet, corrugated sheet.) greenhouse.
c) Plastic film (UV stabilized LDPE film, Silpaulin type sheet, Net house) greenhouse.
d) Based on the value of construction (High-cost Green House, Medium cost Green House, Low-cost Green House)
5. Computerized greenhouses
In general, farmers prefer the manually Controlled System or Semi-Automatic Controlled System due to low investment. However, Manual systems require tons of attention and care and are very difficult and cumbersome to take care of the uniform environment inside the Green House. Ultimately this affects crop production and leads to non-uniform growth and inferiority of the crop.
The poly houses are constructed with the assistance of ultraviolet plastic sheets, in order that they’ll last for quite 5 years. Sheets/ Plastic Mulches are usually of 1501-micron thick plastic sheets and draped around bamboo or iron pipes which are more durable but costlier.
Equipment required for drip irrigation system include:
Drippers of various types are available:
i) Labyrinth drippers
ii) Turbo drippers
iii) Pressure compensating drippers – contain silicon membrane which assures uniform flow for several years.
iv) Button drippers- easy and straightforward to wash . These are good for pots, orchards and
are available with side outlet or top outlet or micro tube outlet.
v) Pot drippers – cones with long tube
Water output in drippers
a. 16mm dripper at 2.8kg/cm2 pressure gives 2.65 lit/hr (LPH).
b. 15mm dripper at 1kg/cm2 pressure gives 1 to 4 lit/hr (LPH).
Environmental control in Green houses and Polyhouses
Relative humidity control:
A humidistat coupled to a water circulating pump or fan is employed to regulate the ratio inside the fan and pad greenhouse. The maximum achievable ratio is 90% only in fan regulated (FR) greenhouse. The RH in Nonventilated (NV) GH is often increased by providing foggers.
Financing Aspects in Greenhouses and Polyhouses
Subsidy for Polyhouse and Greenhouse Farming:
The State Horticulture Mission (SHM), Govt of Kerala provides subsidies up to 50% of the value subject to a maximum of 325/m2 for hi-tech and 125/m2 for normal poly houses, limited to 1000 m2/beneficiary. 50% of cost subject to a maximum of 3500 per 500 m2 limited to 2 ha per beneficiary are going to be given as subsidy for shade nets also. Subsidy is additionally available for mulching at 50% of the entire cost subject to a maximum of 7000/ha limited to 2 ha per beneficiary and for Plastic Tunnel up to 50% of cost subject to a maximum of 5000/1000 Sq .m limited to five ha per beneficiary. The National Mission on Micro-irrigation offers a subsidy of 60% of system cost for little and medium farmers within the State. Farmers of Palakkad, Kasaragod, Kannur and Malappuram are eligible for an extra 15% Assistance from the scheme.
Refinance to Banks:
The 90% of the quantity financed to the borrower under the scheme by banks are going to be eligible for the refinance from NABARD.
i. Term Loan: The banks may finance 85-90% of the project cost as term loan. The eligible amount of subsidy would even be allowed as term loan.
ii. Margin Money: The entrepreneurs should normally meet 10-15% of the project cost out of their own resources.
iii. Interest Rate: the repayment programme has been figured out at 14% rate of interest.
The yield under poly house cultivation is often achieved to the extent of 5-8 times as compared to the open crop cultivation.
Economic size of a best Polyhouse and Greenhouse:
1. Generally the length of the polyhouse or greenhuse is 25-30 feet and width 4-5 feet.
2. The direction of polyhouse is usually East to West, in order that the utmost sunshine is out there.
3. The house shouldn’t be constructed in shade.
4. The dimensions of poly house may differ counting on the need .
5. The poly houses and green houses are kept cold or warm depending upon the season.
This is all about Polyhouse and Greenhouse Farming in India, For further details, comment below.