Biofertilizers are the living microorganisms that supply essential nutrients for the plants. These essential plant nutrients help in the growth and development of plants. There are many microbes that act as biofertilizers. They may be fungal, bacterial or algal microorganisms. Biofertilizers play a key role in organic farming, natural farming and sustainable agrifarming.
Advantages of Biofertilizers
- Biofertilizers fix atmospheric Nitrogen to the plants.
- They convert the insoluble form of elements such as iron, tricalcium, nitrates and aluminum phosphates into available forms in the soil which are further easily absorbed by the crop plants.
- Biofertilizers supply phosphorus to the plants.
- They produce anti-metabolites and hormones that help in promoting root growth.
- Biofertilizers fasten the mineralization process that occurs in the soil.
- In addition, biofertilizers also decompose the organic matter present in the soil.
- Furthermore, biofertilizers increase the crop yield and economic value of the crop.
Types of Biofertilizers
- Bacterial biofertilizers
- Fungal biofertilizers
- Algal biofertilizers
- Actinomycetes biofertilizers
Examples of biofertilizers
- PSB (Phosphorous Soulubulising Bacteria)
- KSB (Potassium Soulubulising Bacteria)
- VAM (Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza)/ Mycorrhiza
- BGA (Blue-Green Algae)
How to use biofertilizers in Agriculture
Biofertilizers are used in various ways in agriculture. They are used as a seed treatment, seedling treatment (Seedling dip), soil drenching, foliar application of biofertilizers. However, biofertilizers applications various with the crop.
The recommended dose of biofertilizers in Agri farming
The dose of biofertilizers varies from crop to crop. However, biofertilizer’s recommendation for various crops is as follows.
|Bio-fertilizers||Crop||Biofertilizer treatment method||Dosage|
|Other crops||Soil drenching||1-2ml/plant|
|Kodo millet||Seed treatment||200ml/acre|
|Finger millet||Seed treatment||200ml/acre|
|VAM||All crops||Soil application||2-3 kg/acre|
|Azolla||Paddy||Sub-merged soil application||4ton/acre|
Benefits of Biofertilizers
Azolla Biofertilizer: It is a water fern that fixes atmospheric Nitrogen (N) in association with Algae (Anabaena azollae)
VAM (Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza)/ Mycorrhiza: It is a fungal biofertilizer is symbiotic with the plant roots. It helps in the conversion of unavailable for Sulphur to the available form of Sulphur which is late absorbed by the plants. In addition, the plants provide shelter to the VAM fungal biofertilizer.
Rhizobium: Rhizobium is a Nitrogen fixing biofertilizer that fixes the atmospheric Nitrogen to the host plant. It is in the form of nodules adhered to the plant root system.
Azotobacter: This Azotobacter biofertilizer converts N2 to NH4+ and No3_ fixes atmospheric Nitrogen for the crop plants.
Azospirillum: This bacterial biofertilizer also fixes the atmospheric nitrogen (N) as the above biofertilizer.
PSB (Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria): PSB is a bacterial biofertilizer that converts an insoluble form of phosphorous in the soil to soluble biofertilizer and makes it available for the plants.
BGA (Blue-Green Algae): This BGA microbe increases soil fertility. In addition, it also increases the water holding capacity and prevent weed growth in the soil.
There are various methods of biofertilizer production. However, we will come up with an article on methods of biofertilizer production soon.
Conclusion: Therefore, this is a brief summary of the role and importance of biofertilizers in the field of agriculture. For more queries comment below.