Introduction to Aloevera Farming Package of Practices:
We all know that Aloevera Farming Package of Practices play a major role in Aloevera profits. Aloevera (Aloe barbadensis) belongs to the family Liliaceae is a hardy perennial succulent plant that is mainly grown for its medicinal value. Aloevera is also called a ‘miracle plant’. Aloe plants consist of 95% water and are frost tender. Aloevera requires a large quantity of water. It originates from the Africa continent. It has 250 species in the world and generally, it requires less maintenance. Aloevera is mainly cultivated for its fleshy leaves from which the yellow resinous latex or sap or anthraquinones are extracted. It is one of the oldest plants known to mankind. The major states of aloevera cultivation are Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Maharashtra.
In this post, we will let you know about Aloevera package of practices, Aloevera farming in India, Aloevera cultivation practices, how to start alevera farm, aloevera farming business plan in india, insect pests and diseases of Aloevera and other Aloevera information regarding Aloevera farming and cultivation.
Economic Importance of Aloevera Farming:
Aloevera is a rich source of antioxidants and vitamins that protects the skin. Aloevera is used in cosmetics and many food industries. Its components can neutralize the effects of ultraviolet radiation. Aloevera leaves are excellent source of amino acids, vitamins, and many minerals. It is also used as an antibiotic, antibacterial and antiviral. Aloevera is also used as skincare. In addition, it is also used in making moisturizers, soaps, sunscreens, shampoos and lotions.
Climatic conditions for Aloervera Farming:
It is generally a tropical crop but it can be grown in wide climatic conditions. Extensive cultivation of Aloevera can be done in regions having 25 – 40°C.
List of Aloevera varities for Aloervera Farming
There are three varieties grown in India namely
- Gurguva aloe (Aloevera),
- Cape aloe (Aloe ferox,
- Sagotrin aloe (Aloe perryi.
- Important other Aloevera varieties grown are Zanzibar, Uganda, Natal and Hyderabad aloe.
Soil requirements for Aloevera Farming Package of Practices:
It can be grown in a wide range of soils from marginal to submarginal soils. The pH of soil ranges from 7.0 to 8.5. Well-drained laterite soils are the best soils for Aloevera cultivation. Aloevera can be successfully grown in saline soils. The soils must possess good drainage facilities. It also grows well in light soils.
Propagation of Aloevera:
Propagation is done through rhizome cuttings or root suckers. But, suckers are highly preferred for commercial cultivation than rhizome cuttings.
Field preparation for Aloevera cultivation:
Preparation of the land by 2 to 3 times ploughing with mouldboard plough to pulverize the soil and make it free from clods and also for the breakdown of organic matter present in the soil.
Planting of suckers for Aloervera Farming:
The root suckers are dipped in a 0.1 % Carbendazim solution for five minutes and planted in the field.
Seed rate for Aloevera farming: About 10,000 suckers are required for planting about one hectare. Suckers are cut about 15-20 cm long and planted with a spacing of 50*30 cm. Only one-third of the sucker is exposed above the soil.
Planting season of Aloevera:
In India, it can be planted in two seasons namely, June-July and September-October.
Fertilizer application/Fertilizer dosage in Aloevera farming:
During ploughing.20-25 tons of FYM or compost is applied as a basal dose and mixed well before planting. NPK can be applied at the rate of 50:50:50 kg/ha. A full dose of Phosphorus and potassium with a half dose of Nitrogen is given as basal dose. Remaining half dose of Nitrogen is given when the crop is established well in the field.
Irrigation requirements for Aloevera:
Generally, more number of irrigations are required for gel production when compared to juice production. In India, the number of irrigations required is between 4 and 10 depending on the soil and climatic conditions. But it is mainly grown as a rainfed crop.
Weed management in Aloevera farming:
The field must be kept weed-free throughout the cultivation. Weeding shall be done at regular intervals. The first weeding is done within one month after planting. Second weeding is done after two months of first weeding. Weeding must be taken with at most care not to damage the crop.
Plant protection/Insect pest and disease management in Aloevera cultivation:
Insect pests of Aloevera, their symptoms, and different management practices:
Aloevera aphid (Aloephagus myersi)
Symptoms: Both nymphs and adults feed at the lower surface of the leaves or in rolled ends of affected leaves. They also have honeydew secretion that results in sooty mold development. Heavy infestation leads to slower growth and stunting of plants.
Chemical Management: Application of phorate 10 % G @ 15 kg / ha is recommended.
Non-chemical management/ Natural control/ Organic control: Usage of natural enemies and application of NSKE @ 5% is recommended.
Diseases of Aloevera, their symptoms, and different management practices:
Aloevera rust disease (Phakopsora pachyrhizi)
Symptoms: It causes circular black or brown lesions on the leaves. Oxidation of phenols present in the plant sap causes black spots on the leaves. It also causes back holes in the branches of the plant. The infected leaves drop down prematurely.
Chemical Management: Sprays with Mancozeb 0.2 % is always effective.
Non-chemical management/ Natural control/ Organic control: Selection of disease-free suckers for planting. Practice crop rotation whenever possible. Proper pruning and destruction of infested plant parts.
Bacterial soft rot disease of Aloevera: (Pectobacterium chrysanthemi)
Symptoms: The disease is favoured by wet weather; spread easily by water splash. The infected leaf becomes watery due to bacterial decay. The plant gets rolled down and twisted. It also emits a foul odour. This disease is very severe during a rainy period.
Management practices: Proper land preparation with a good drainage system. Avoiding injury to the plant during weeding operations. Removing of plant residues immediately after harvest. Destruction of infected plants properly.
Harvesting and Yield of Aloevera
Harvesting of Aloevera: A crop once planted gives production up to five-six years. For maximum productivity, the crop is cut after 9-10 months of planting. For juice purposes, mature leaves of appropriate size are cut from the base of the plant.
Yield of Aloevera: Extensive yield is obtained during the second year of planting and continues until five years. Usually, three to four pickings can be taken in a year. The average yield is about 15-20t/ha.