What is Polyhouse?
Polyhouse made protection cultivation possible which is a promising technology reached through the world and becoming much more population. China stands first in protected cultivation followed by India. The area under protected cultivation in China is about 13m ha and in India, it is about 10.106m ha (as per NHB database, 2015-16). protected cultivation made a huge change over among educated youths to go ahead and to fetch a strong economy in the world market. Polyhouse technology paved the way for off-season cultivation of vegetables which refers to the cultivation throughout the year without depending on season bound cultivation. Cultivation of vegetables during off-season under polyhouse gives a higher price to farmers and also the vegetables made available to the consumers throughout the year. The polyhouse technology is suitable to the crops such as tomato, capsicum, cabbage, bitter gourd, radish, onion, spinach etc. and flower crops such as carnation, gerbera, marigold, orchid and rose.
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Introduction to Polyhouse
Polyhouse is a tunnel which is made of steel or wooden support materials and covered with polythene, which is usually semi-circular, square or elongated in shape. The interior heats up because the solar radiation emitted by the sun warms plants, soil and other being inside the structure faster than heat can escape from there. The air inside gets warmed and retained by the roof and walls of polyhouse.
The importance of the polyhouse is to maintain the temperature, humidity and ventilation which enables to obtain higher temperature and humidity than that are available in the environment. Polyhouse protects the crop from heat, heavy sunlight, wind, heavy rainfall, cold waves and the pest and disease that are transmitted from the outer environment. Thus the technology is typically known to be protected cultivation. Polyhouse allows growing fruits and vegetables during off-season condition by making available the optimum condition needed by the different crop. The ultimate aim of the polyhouse is to create a microclimate within the structure. Polyhouse replaces the lack of cultivable lands by planting more crops in the available less space and thereby resulting in high yield.
Steps to start Polyhouse in 1 acre
Step-1 Location selection/ site selection for 1 acre polyhouse:
To select a suitable location for constructing polyhouse farming that is convenient with the availability of procuring inputs, easy to get labours, good transport facility, market availability and to ensure that the location is not affected by natural disasters.
Step 2 Water source:
Water plays a key input in polyhouse cultivation, to be made ensure with the availability of quality and quantity of water and to be planned accordingly.
Step 3 Growing medium:
The plants that are to be raised in a selective growing medium which is either coir-pith or compost mixer with sand and soil. The plants are grown either in pot culture or directly planted to the cultivable land depending on the crop.
Step 4 Electricity energy supply:
Availability of electricity supply to be considered to create and maintain the required controlled environment condition for different crops.
Step 5 Maintenance of 1 acre polyhouse:
Proper maintenance of crops with the available labour is foremost important, by manually adjusting the interior temperature by opening and closing of side vents.
Polyhouse establishment budget/ Cost of 1 acre Polyhouse
|Polyhouse sheet (54/sq.m)
|Drip and fogger
|Labour (16 men workers)
The polyhouse can be established at a rate of Rs. 66.6/ square meter, which is considered to be a low-cost polyhouse establishment in a beneficial manner to obtain the optimum condition for off-season cultivation of vegetables and flower crops.
Conclusion of 1 acre polyhouse cost
Polyhouse farming is a yield-enhancing technology, providing highly nutritive values without the use of much of pesticides and other chemicals. A fine structure that made available a good quality of seasonal and off-seasonal vegetables and fruits which are grown by maintaining at their level of required optimum conditions. Economically, polyhouse farming is a large scale of profit-making technology within a short period.